You can also have a water-based drink to go with everything, notes Dr. It's usually okay to take water-soluble vitamin supplements on an empty stomach. However, if you find that you have digestive complaints, you may want to take them with some type of food. Those who follow a healthy diet with vitamin-rich foods and who take vitamins in pill form may be at risk of overdosing.
When it comes to vitamins, there can be too many good things. Vitamins, especially pyridoxine (B), should be taken with eight glasses of water a day. Too many B vitamins can cause liver damage. When you don't get enough of these vitamins in your diet, it's sometimes recommended that you take them in the form of vitamin supplements.
If you feel nausea, gas, or diarrhea from taking vitamins on an empty stomach, you may want to take them with a little food or right after a meal. Still, if you take all your vitamins together (both fat-soluble and water-soluble), you may want to take them with food. B vitamins, in particular, have been shown to increase energy and mood in people who are deficient in them. While taking vitamins on an empty stomach probably won't cause major health problems, it can cause some discomfort that you probably want to avoid.
These vitamins (vitamin C and all the B vitamins) dissolve in water and are metabolized faster than fat-soluble vitamins. All of the B vitamins and vitamin C can be taken first thing in the morning with a glass of water or any time of the day you can remember. The intake of these vitamins with food ensures the optimal release of bile and pancreatic enzymes in the stomach, necessary for the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, says Marinov. Symptoms of vitamin D deficiency include bone pain, muscle weakness or cramps, fatigue, or changes in mood, such as depression, according to the Cleveland Clinic.
According to Colorado State University, there is also a greater risk of vitamin toxicity with fat-soluble vitamins such as A and E. Even if you're taking a multivitamin with fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins, do what causes you the least digestive discomfort. This is also why taking multivitamins with food increases the chances that nutrients will work optimally, especially if the multivitamin is comprised primarily of fat-soluble vitamins, according to the Cleveland Clinic. Foods high in healthy fats that are good choices to eat with vitamin A, E, and K supplements include avocado, nuts, fatty fish such as salmon, eggs, tofu, and olives.